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task #16466: Update/Translation of philosophy/enforcing-gpl.html

Submitter:  Wensheng XIE <wxie>
Submitted:  Wed 06 Dec 2023 01:27:23 PM UTC
   
 
Category:  None Should Start On:  Tue 05 Dec 2023 04:00:00 PM UTC
Should be Finished on:  Sat 31 Dec 2022 04:00:00 PM UTC Priority:  5 - Normal
Status:  Done Privacy:  Public
Assigned to:  None Percent Complete:  100%
Open/Closed:  Closed Effort:  20.00

Mon 01 Jan 2024 12:12:15 PM UTC, comment #4: 

Hi, Hagb:

感谢点评。你的意见都很敏锐,很多是我没有考虑到的点。
我把大多数的意见都实施到最新翻译之中了。
你可以到网页去查看。

File is committed into www and www-zh-cn.

The task is marked done.

Wensheng XIE <wxie>
Group administrator
Sun 31 Dec 2023 02:14:16 PM UTC, comment #3: 

关于全文中“enforce”的翻译:“强制执行”在中文语境中似乎往往指运用执法/司法机构使用强制力来执行,如常提的“老赖被强制执行”,而不包括文中所说的使 GPL 违反者自愿改正。或许在译文中的某些地方(可能有较多处,甚至大部分/全部)的 enforce 的译文“强制执行”宜改为“实施”或者其他类似的不表达“老赖被强制执行”中“强制执行”之意的译文?

下文的审校给出的参考译文中,“强制执行”的原译文依然保留,待之后集中处理、修改。

1.

> Microsoft's anti-GPL offensive this summer has sparked renewed speculation about whether the GPL is &ldquo;enforceable.&rdquo;
> 微软今夏对 GPL 的攻击点燃了新一轮关于 GPL 是否 &ldquo;可以强制执行&rdquo; 的 推断


“推断”一词似乎更倾向于是得出一种相对确定的结论,而非对某件事情“是否可以”的争论,而且“点燃推断”的搭配不太合适。建议译为

> 微软今夏对 GPL 的攻击 引发 了新一轮关于 GPL 是否 &ldquo;可以强制执行&rdquo; 的 思考


2. (建议)

> This particular example of &ldquo;FUD&rdquo; (fear, uncertainty and doubt)  is always a little amusing to me.
> 这个特别的 &ldquo;FUD&rdquo;(恐惧、不安和怀疑)实例对我总是有点娱乐感。


翻译成这样(或者其他类似的表述)可能更合乎中文语言习惯:

> 这个特别的 &ldquo;FUD&rdquo;(恐惧、不安和怀疑)实例 总是让我有点想笑


3.

> (This particular example of &ldquo;FUD&rdquo; (fear, uncertainty and doubt)  is always a little amusing to me.) I'm the only lawyer on earth who can say this, I suppose, but it makes me wonder what everyone's wondering about: Enforcing the <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GPL</a> is something that I do all the time.
> 也许,我是世上唯一一个 对此有发言权 的律师,但是此事让我不禁在 质疑大家都在质疑的事 :强制执行 <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GPL</a> 是我一直在做的事情。


这里的“say this”可能就是表示说前面的那句 “… a little amusing to me …”,而不是指对这个话题有发言权?因为后面提到他一直在做大家质疑的执行 GPL。另外,这句话中第一次出现的 “wonder” 可能是指作者对大家的想法表示某种疑惑,或许翻译成“疑惑大家都在质疑什么”。

> 也许,我是世上唯一一个 可以这么说 的律师,但是此事让我疑惑 大家在质疑什么 :强制执行 <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">GPL</a> 是我一直在做的事情。


4.

> Because <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> is an unorthodox concept in contemporary society, people tend to assume that such an atypical goal must be pursued using unusually ingenious, and therefore fragile, legal machinery.
> 因为 <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">自由软件</a> 的概念在当前社会显得离经叛道,人们会假想这种非典型的目标必须使用 异乎寻常的 巧妙——因而是脆弱的——法律机制来达成。但是这种假想是错误的。


此处巧妙为形容词而非名词,因此“异乎寻常的”中的“的”应为“地”。

5.

> But the GPL, the legal device that makes everything else possible, is a very robust machine precisely because it is made of the simplest working parts.
> 而 GPL,这个使一切成为可能的法律工具,正是因为它由 最小工作单元 组成,所以它是非常鲁棒的运转机器。


此处“the simplest working parts”,我的理解是指下文所讲的 GPL 只用了较简单、未超出版权法的条款,不复杂也没太大争议性,这些条款因此是“simplest working parts”。此外,此处“运转机器”的译文我未解何意。以下为供参考的译文(但也使用了一些意译,可能需要进一步修正):

> 而 GPL,这个使一切此为可能的法律工具,正是因为由最简单管用的部分组成,所以强而有力。


6.

> Licenses are not contracts: the work's user is obliged to remain within the bounds of the license not because she voluntarily promised , but because she doesn't have any right to act at all except as the license permits.
> 许可证不是合同:作品的使用者有义务遵守许可证的边界,不是因为她 自愿如此 ,而是因为她只能做许可证允许的事情。


我认为此处将“promise”译出可能更好,原文强调了合同和许可证的区别,前者需要用户签署(承诺)才能对用户生效,而后者则给与用户关于此作品的权利(否则用户就没有这些权利,无论用户签不签署):

> 许可证不是合同:作品的使用者有义务遵守许可证的边界,不是因为她 主动承诺 ,而是因为她只能做许可证允许的事情。


7.

> Copyright is just leverage for taking even more away from users.
> 版权只是 平衡 用户不被更多剥削的尺度。


此处 leverage 并非 average。以下翻译供参考(此处偏意译):

> 版权只是用于进一步剥削用户。


8. (建议)

> Meanwhile, much murmuring has been going on in recent months to the supposed effect that the absence of judicial enforcement, in US or other courts, somehow demonstrates that there is something wrong with the GPL, that its unusual policy goal is implemented in a technically indefensible way, or that the Free Software Foundation, which authors the license, is afraid of testing it in court.
> 与此同时,最近数月流传很多抱怨,说 GPL 在美国或其他国家的法庭上没有过法律意义的强制执行记录,这似乎说明 GPL 有问题——它异乎寻常的政策目标是以 无法自我防御 的技术手段实现的,或者自由软件基金会作为许可证作者,不敢在法庭上验证 GPL。


此处“indenfensible”建议译为“站不住脚”。

9.

> <a href="/licenses/gpl-violation.html">We ask the reporters of violations to help us establish necessary facts</a>, and then we conduct whatever further investigation is required.
> <a href="/licenses/gpl-violation.html">我们会请举报人帮我们 确立 必要的事实</a>,然后我们会采取进一步的必要调查。


此处“确立”和“事实”搭配似乎不太合适。(establish 亦有“证实”、“确定”的意思)

> <a href="/licenses/gpl-violation.html">我们会请举报人帮我们 确定 必要的事实</a>,然后我们会采取进一步的必要调查。


10.

> Sometimes, however, we believe that confidence-building measures will be required , because the scale of the violation or its persistence in time makes mere voluntary compliance insufficient.
> 不过有时,由于违反的尺度或持久性不是仅仅做一些自愿修改就足够的, 我们会要求做一些让我们确信会改正的措施是必要的


此处加粗部分似乎不太通畅。

11.

> In such situations we work with organizations to establish GPL-compliance programs within their enterprises , led by senior managers who report to us, and directly to their enterprises' managing boards, regularly.
> 在这种情况下,我们会和这些组织一起工作,构建 企业级 的 GPL 合规项目,领导项目的高级经理定期直接向企业管理层汇报,同时也汇报给我们。


“企业级”一般指达到某些特定的性能/特性要求?此处“within their enterprises”可能只是指在 GPL 违反者的活动/计划/经营中。

郭俊余 <hagb>
Group Member
Sat 23 Dec 2023 09:00:05 AM UTC, comment #2: 

Hi, wxie:

Yeah, I can review it.

Best regards,
Hagb

郭俊余 <hagb>
Group Member
Fri 22 Dec 2023 01:00:11 PM UTC, comment #1: 

Hi, hagb:

I hope you are doing well.
If you can, please help review this.

Wensheng XIE <wxie>
Group administrator
Wed 06 Dec 2023 01:27:23 PM UTC, original submission:  
Wensheng XIE <wxie>
Group administrator

 

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