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apache guides

rewrites, redirects, aliases

If you have a rewrite rule in apache for all of "/wiki", then that will take precedence over any redirects in place. that is because the rewrite module has overall precedence. So convert your redirect to a rewrite rule, like the following:

RewriteRule "^/wiki/$" "/wiki/ESP:About" [R]

It may also be possible to use 'Alias' instead of a rewrite rule, so you can make use of redirects rather than rewrites:

Alias /wiki /var/www/w/index.php


RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^/?wiki(/.*)?$ %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}/w/index.php [L]

redirect many HTTP domains to HTTPS while working with HSTS

Background: When redirecting from HTTP to HTTPS, the domain names of both URLs should be the same. This allows browsers to respect our HSTS settings, which tell it to always go directly to the HTTPS site even if https:// is not typed at the beginning of the URL.

If we only redirect all port 80 connections for all virtual domains to a single target domain, the URLs will vary between the original and target domain names, so HSTS wouldn't work. Here is how to set this up in Apache:

Enable the rewrite module:

a2enmod rewrite

Add to your Apache virtual host config for port 80:

    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteRule ^ https://%{SERVER_NAME}%{REQUEST_URI} [END,QSA,R=permanent]

Reload Apache:

systemctl reload apache2

Example of testing:

rm .wget-hsts


The second time, there should be a message about HSTS at the top of the output. Also check the flow of URLs that wget follows as it reaches the target domain.

To confirm that the correct target is reached and that things are generally not broken, you can also clear the cache from your browser to remove any stale redirects from previous use, and then test out in your browser, confirming that everything looks correct.